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Impact of Solar Derivers on Geomagnetic Field (Paperback)

Impact of Solar Derivers on Geomagnetic Field By Anil Kumar Pimpalkar Cover Image
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Description


The Sun is the most prominent feature in our solar system. It is the largest object and contains

approximately 98% of the total solar system mass. One hundred and nine Earths would

be required to fit across the Sun's disk, and its interior could hold over 1.3 million Earths. The

Sun's outer visible layer is called the photosphere and has a temperature of 6,000 C (11,000 F).

This layer has a mottled appearance due to the turbulent eruptions of energy at the

surface. Solar energy is created deep within the core of the Sun. It is here that the temperature

(15,000,000 C; 27,000,000 F) and pressure (340 billion times Earth's air pressure at sea level)

is so intense that nuclear reactions take place. This reaction causes four protons or

hydrogen nuclei to fuse together to form one alpha particle or helium nucleus. The alpha

particle is about 0.7 percent less massive than the four protons. The difference in mass is

expelled as energy and is carried to the surface of the Sun, through a process known as convection,

where it is released as light and heat. Energy generated in the Sun's core takes a million years to

reach its surface. The chromosphere is above the photosphere, solar energy passes through this

region on its way out from the center of the Sun. Faculae and flares arise in the chromosphere.

Faculae are bright luminous hydrogen clouds which form above regions where sunspots are about to

form. Flares are bright filaments of hot gas emerging from sunspot regions. Sunspots are dark

depressions on the photosphere with a typical temperature of 4,000 C (7,000 F). Corona is the outer part of the Sun's atmosphere. It is

in this region that prominences appear. Prominences are immense clouds of glowing gas

that erupt from the upper chromosphere. The outer region of the corona stretches far into space and

consists of particles traveling slowly away from the Sun. The corona can only be seen

during total solar eclipses.


It is a thin layer that produces the radiation transmitted into space. At this distance from the

sun, photons are more likely to escape than be absorbed. The main feature of this

region is as follows (i) height about 100 kilometers (ii) radiation temperature is about

5780 Kelvin (peak output is the center of visible light) (iii) photospheric temperature ranges

from 6600 Kelvin at the bottom to 4300 Kelvin (temperature minimum) at the top (iv) density is

about one hundred millionth of water (v) pressure is one hundredth of an atmosphere. The

photosphere is the transition from the convection zone to a convectively stable atmosphere. For

photons to freely leave the sun, the atmosphere does not have as many absorbing atoms

per unit volume. Decreasing density contributes to the transparency.


Product Details
ISBN: 9789432175685
ISBN-10: 9432175685
Publisher: Manitham Publishers
Publication Date: January 13th, 2023
Pages: 182
Language: English